Stress is average force per unit area which results strain of material. The unit of stress is N/mm^{2} (MPa). Strain is any forced dimension change of a
material and strain is a dimensionless quantity. Stress and strain formulas for a
bar under axial loading are given in the following table.
If a straight bar, of any cross section, of homogeneous material, is axially
loaded , the bar elongates under tension and shortens under compression. On any
right section to the load, there is a uniform tensile (or compressive) stress.
On any oblique section, there is a uniform tensile (or compressive) normal
stress and a uniform shear stress.
Basic assumptions for the Stress and Strain Calculator are:
 Uniform stress distribution is occured at any section of the bar,
 The stress does not exceed the proportional limit.
OUTPUT PARAMETERS 
Parameter 
Value 
Tensile Stress [σ] 



Normal Stress in any Oblique Plane [σ_{θ}] 


Shear Stress in any Oblique Plane [τ_{θ}] 


Longitudinal Strain [ε] 


 
Lateral Strain [ε'] 


Longitudinal Deflection [δ] 




Lateral Deflection [δ'] 


Total Strain Enegy [U] 



Note: Use dot "." as decimal separator.
Note: Negative stresses are compression stresses.