
Tension 


0.1 ≤ h/r ≤ 2.0 
2.0 ≤ h/r ≤ 50.0 
C_{1} 
$$0.89+2.208\sqrt { h/r } 0.094h/r$$ 
$$1.037+1.967\sqrt { h/r } +0.002h/r$$ 
C_{2} 
$$0.9236.678\sqrt { h/r } +1.638h/r$$ 
$$2.6792.980\sqrt { h/r } 0.053h/r$$ 
C_{3} 
$$2.893+6.448\sqrt { h/r } 2.516h/r$$ 
$$3.090+2.124\sqrt { h/r } +0.165h/r$$ 
C_{4} 
$$1.9121.944\sqrt { h/r } +0.963h/r$$ 
$$0.4241.153\sqrt { h/r } 0.106h/r$$ 
K_{t}=C_{1}+C_{2}(2h/D)+C_{3}(2h/D)^{2}+C_{4}(2h/D)^{3} 
σ_{nom}=4P/πd^{2}

σ_{max}=σ_{A}=K_{t}σ_{nom}

Bending 


0.25 ≤ h/r ≤ 2.0 
2.0 ≤ h/r ≤ 50.0 
C_{1} 
$$0.594+2.958\sqrt { h/r } 0.520h/r$$ 
$$0.965+1.926\sqrt { h/r }$$ 
C_{2} 
$$0.42210.545\sqrt { h/r } +2.692h/r$$ 
$$2.7734.414\sqrt { h/r } 0.017h/r$$ 
C_{3} 
$$0.501+14.375\sqrt { h/r } 4.486h/r$$ 
$$4.785+4.681\sqrt { h/r } +0.096h/r$$ 
C_{4} 
$$0.6136.573\sqrt { h/r } +2.177h/r$$ 
$$1.9952.241\sqrt { h/r } 0.074h/r$$ 
K_{t}=C_{1}+C_{2}(2h/D)+C_{3}(2h/D)^{2}+C_{4}(2h/D)^{3} 
σ_{nom}=32M/πd^{3}

σ_{max}=σ_{A}=K_{t}σ_{nom}

Torsion 


0.25 ≤ h/r ≤ 2.0 
2.0 ≤ h/r ≤ 50.0 
C_{1} 
$$0.966+1.056\sqrt { h/r } 0.022h/r$$ 
$$1.089+0.924\sqrt { h/r } +0.018h/r$$ 
C_{2} 
$$0.192  4.037\sqrt { h/r } +0.674h/r$$ 
$$1.504  2.141\sqrt { h/r } 0.047h/r$$ 
C_{3} 
$$0.808 +5.321\sqrt { h/r } 1.231h/r$$ 
$$2.486 +2.289\sqrt { h/r } +0.091h/r$$ 
C_{4} 
$$0.5672.364\sqrt { h/r } +0.566h/r$$ 
$$1.056 1.104\sqrt { h/r } 0.059h/r$$ 
K_{t}=C_{1}+C_{2}(2h/D)+C_{3}(2h/D)^{2}+C_{4}(2h/D)^{3} 
τ_{nom}=16T/πd^{3}

τ_{max}=τ_{A}=K_{t}τ_{nom}
